The Historic Limekilns of Ceredigion
One of the square kilns at Llanrhystud
Lime has been used for building since 7000 BC (
South Galilee, Israel). It was widely used by the Egyptians and later by the
Romans who invented various mixes including a waterproof lime mortar for use in
aqueducts by including volcanic dust in the mix. In Ceredigion, lime was not
always available and some early builders used earth and clay between the stones.
However, with the advent of a busy coastal shipping industry in West Wales,
Limestone, and culm - the fuel needed to convert Limestone into quicklime became
two of the more important imports to the area.
The soil of much of inland and upland Ceredigion tends to be thin and acidic -not at all conducive to arable farming. As a result lime was needed for application to the soil to reduce acidity and thereby increase fertility. Lime was also very much in demand as lime mortar for building - lime mortar was used in Ceredigion before Portland cement was available. It was also needed for Lime wash - the original whitewash used to paint stone cottages white.
Before the coming of the railways, the only way to
get lime to the west coast of Wales was by ship. The limestone was brought from
Gower and Pembrokeshire by boat. Often, it was offloaded into the water at high
tide and then collected from the beach when the tide went down.
To make lime, limestone - or calcium carbonate must be heated to 800 - 900 degrees to drive off carbon dioxide and leave calcium oxide or quicklime. This process was achieved in huge masonry kilns with a tapering internal furnace or 'crucible' where alternate layers of limestone and culm were introduced through the opening at the top. It is said that during the day they burned with a transparent blue waving flame while giving off thick acrid yellow smoke. At night they glowed and may have been useful landmarks for travelers both on sea and land. Some of the kilns are round (Llangrannog, Cwmtydu (on left) and Mwnt) while others are square (Llanrhystud and Wallog north of Aberystwyth). I have found no record of the shape of the Cei Bach kilns. The shapes drawn on the 1840 Tithe map (below) are indeterminate.
This part of the 1840 Tithe map clearly shows a group of 4 Lime kilns
where the present Cei Bach beach path enters the beach (top left)
and a group of 2 near Troedyrhiew Farm (right) to the east.
At the base of the kiln is one or more triangular or
arch shaped openings leading to a small aperture or draw hole where the fire
could be lit and the finished lime drawn off. The well preserved lime kiln
complex between Llanon and Llanrhystud was one of the major lime producer in the
area with four kilns, each of which has three draw holes. There were also
several kilns at Cei Bach close to New Quay - the 1840 Tithe map clearly shows
at least six kilns. Unfortunately, coastal erosion has destroyed the kilns at
Cei Bach. All that remains is the central portion of a single wall - which may
or may not be part of one of the eastern group of lime kilns, stripped of its
protective stone .
Examination of the Llanrhystud kilns shows that both interior and exterior walls were of dressed stone, while the cavity between was filled with rubble - all that is remaining at Cei Bach.
Quicklime drawn from the kilns was sold to farmers who would leave it in small heaps on the fields to be 'slaked' - to take in water and to be converted to calcium hydroxide before it could be applied to the land. Without slaking, the quick lime would have killed anything growing! The slaked lime was spread at some four tons to the acre.
The lime industry in Ceredigion started in the eighteenth century. However it
died out towards the end of the nineteenth century as the railways proved to be
more cost effective than the coastal shipping trade and as other fertilizers
such as guano became more widely used. By 1900 almost all the coastal kilns had
Storms and erosion have removed all traces of many kilns including most of those at Cei Bach. Others such as those at Cwmtydu, Llangrannog and Mwnt are built well away from the edge of the sea and remain more or less intact. However, the best un-restored examples remain between Llanon and Llanrhystud . Presently the kilns are well away from the edge of the soft clay/rubble cliff. However these cliffs are very vulnerable to storms and without coastal protection the Llanrhystud (Aberstrincell) kilns could well be lost within just a few generations. See them while you can.
© Rod Attrill